# CellML Basic Model Information Metadata Specification 2.0

June 2011

## Authors

Michael T. Cooling (m.cooling@auckland.ac.nz)

Contributors

Richard Christie

David P. Nickerson

Tommy Yu

David Brooks

## Status of this Document

Discussion draft.

## Dependencies

This specification is dependent on the CellML Core Metadata Specification 2.0.

## Introduction

Regardless of the type of model encoded in a CellML model document, there are three attributes that apply:

• Every model document has a creator (whether human or by some other entity or artifact). This creator may be part of an organization and recording that fact may be desirable.
• Every model document is created at a point in time.
• Every model document will be created for some reason or purpose, of varying significance (for example: as part of a scientific mode of enquiry, or as a side-effect of some automated process).

The same could be said about any CellML model element. In addition, it is useful to be able to add descriptive, free-form text annotation to model elements for the general purpose of adding comments about them.

This ability to add author, timestamp information and a comment or description is also extended to annotation elements. One could add annotation forming a 'comment' about a piece of CellML code, then annotate that comment to form a comment about that comment etc.

Together, these annotations are considered 'Basic Model Information'. This document describes how these should be annotated for a given CellML model document, should someone wish to do so.

## Realisation Strategy

People, organizations and other entities (such as software packages or physical artefacts capable of performing some action) will be described using a subset of an external emerging (currently version 0.1) standard known as Friend-Of-A-Friend (FOAF). At the time of writing, the current FOAF specification (Vocabulary Specification 0.98 "Marco Polo Edition") can be found here: http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/20100809.html.

In FOAF, the aforementioned entities are collectively known as Agents. CellML model document annotations will describe Agents using RDF/XML serializations of FOAF objects. Most often, a FOAF object will become the RDF Objects of some RDF Subject-Predicate-Object triple. For example: the Agent which creates a model or model element.

In order to describe Agents, the following subset of the FOAF Core is considered part of this specification

FOAF objects

• Person - describing a person
• Group - A collective of Agents
• Agent - superclass of Person and Group. May also describe other types of Agents not given their own explicit subclass, such as a software package

FOAF properties

• name - a name for one of the FOAF objects above
• familyName - a family name, used for Person objects
• givenName - a given name, used for Person objects
• member - used to declare that some Agent is a member of a Group

FOAF properties and objects not listed above are not considered part of the CellML Basic Model Information Metadata Specification 2.0.

The relationship to specify the creator of a model document can be made by forming an RDF triple where the Subject is the model tag (via a cmeta:id), the Object is the Agent who is the creator, and the Predicate is described using the 'maker' property from FOAF.

The point in time at which a model element was created should be encoded using the Dublin Core (http://dublincore.org/documents/2010/10/11/dcmi-terms/) term 'created', annotated similarly to 'maker' above. The time point itself should be encoded in the W3C's Time and Date Formats Specification (http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetime). This allows the specification of the time point at an encoder-chosen level of precision.

A general comment on a model element, including the purpose of a model (which would be encoded with the <model> tag as the RDF Subject), should be encoded using the Dublin Core 'description' term, as text.

The recommended namespace declarations for using FOAF and the Dublin Core in the context of this specification are as follows:

xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"

Dublin Core terms not explicitly mentioned above are not considered part of the CellML Basic Model Information Metadata Specification 2.0.

In order to make comments about annotation elements, including other comments, RDF 'reification' is used. Conceptually, this involves making the RDF statement that links some model element with an annotation into a statement with an identifier that can itself be referenced in further RDF statements. In pure RDF, this involves making a set of 4 RDF statements (known as an 'RDF reification quad') that together describe the original annotation statement and provide it with an identifier (more details on reification can be found in http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/). This is in addition to the RDF that actually makes the original annotation statement. In pure RDF this can become verbose, particularly if the original annotation statement has a lengthy Object. Fortunately, in XML/RDF there is a shorthand version, where predicates are assigned an rdf:ID, which can then be used as the RDF Subject of the comment annotation. This Specification recommends that approach, although full specification of the 'RDF reification quad' is also acceptable.

## Examples

1. Representing a Person

<foaf:Person>
<foaf:givenName>Mike</foaf:givenName>
<foaf:familyName>Cooling</foaf:familyName>
</foaf:Person>


2. Representing a research institute or other group

<foaf:Group>
<foaf:name>Auckland Bioengineering Institute</foaf:name>
</foaf:Group>


3. Representing a software package

<foaf:Agent>
<foaf:name>CellML API v1.8</foaf:name>
</foaf:Agent>


4. Specifying members of a Group

This could be done 'inline' as follows:

<foaf:Group>
<foaf:name>Auckland Bioengineering Institute</foaf:name>
<foaf:member>
<foaf:Person>
<foaf:name>Mike Cooling</foaf:name>
</foaf:Person>
</foaf:member>
</foaf:Group>


Or, where an Agent might be involved in several annotations within the CellML model document it is recommended to define the Agent separately and use an rdf:nodeID as follows:

<foaf:Person rdf:nodeID="mike_cooling">
<foaf:givenName>Mike</foaf:givenName>
<foaf:familyName>Cooling</foaf:familyName>
</foaf:Person>

<foaf:Group>
<foaf:name>Auckland Bioengineering Institute</foaf:name>
<foaf:member rdf:nodeID="mike_cooling"/>
</foaf:Group>


5. Adding creator, timestamp and purpose descriptions to a CellML model.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<model xmlns="http://www.cellml.org/cellml/1.0#"
xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"
xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"
cmeta:id="model_example"
name="model_example"
>

<rdf:RDF>

<foaf:Person rdf:nodeID="mike_cooling">
<foaf:givenName>Mike</foaf:givenName>
<foaf:familyName>Cooling</foaf:familyName>
</foaf:Person>

<foaf:maker  rdf:nodeID="mike_cooling"/>
<dcterms:created rdf:datatype=" http://purl.org/dc/terms/W3CDTF">
2011-02
</dcterms:created>
<dcterms:description>This model was constructed as an example model for the CellML 1.1 Metadata Specification Framework.
</dcterms:description>
</rdf:Description>

</rdf:RDF>

other elements...

</model>


The above example shows the construction of a FOAF Person object, which becomes the RDF subject of a 'maker' relationship for the model document. The 'created' predicate is used to specify that this particular model was created during February 2011, and the 'description' predicate describes the purpose of the model's creation. In the above example all three 'Basic model information' statements are made together, which is recommended, but there is no reason why one or more cannot be absent, or specified as separate statements in the model document, e.g.

<rdf:Description rdf:about="#model_example">
<dcterms:created rdf:datatype=" http://purl.org/dc/terms/W3CDTF">
2011-02
</dcterms:created>
</rdf:Description>

...other elements...

<foaf:maker  rdf:nodeID="mike_cooling"/>
</rdf:Description>


6. Adding creator (using the FOAF Person defined in example 1) and timestamp elements to a model element (in this case, a CellML component)

<RDF>
<foaf:maker>mike_cooling</foaf:maker>
<dcterms:created rdf:datatype=" http://purl.org/dc/terms/W3CDTF">
2010-11-07
</dcterms:created>
</rdf:Description>
</RDF>

...other elements...

<component name="model_parameters" cmeta:id="parameters">

...other elements...

</component>


7. Adding a comment to a model element (in this case, a CellML variable)

<variable cmeta:id="vi_variable" initial_value="0.025" name="vi" public_interface="out" units="flux">
<rdf:RDF>
<dcterms:description>This value of 0.025 comes
from Fig 3 caption, page 9110 of the original paper
</dcterms:description>
</rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>
</variable>


8. Extending the previous example so as to add a comment, and a timestamp, to a comment, the identifier on the predicate of the first statement shown in bold

<variable cmeta:id="vi_variable" initial_value="0.025" name="vi" public_interface="out" units="flux">
<rdf:RDF>
<dcterms:description rdf:ID="vi_comment">This value of
0.025 comes from Fig 3 caption, page 9110 of the original
paper</dcterms:description>
</rdf:Description>

<foaf:maker  rdf:nodeID="mike_cooling"/>
<dcterms:created
rdf:datatype="http://purl.org/dc/terms/W3CDTF">
2010-11-05</dcterms:created>
<dcterms:description>Original author confirms Fig 3 is the
best one to use.</dcterms:description>
</rdf:Description>
</rdf:RDF>
</variable>


Note that in this example the timestamp relates to the first comment (with an rdf:ID of "vi_comment") only, and gives no information as to when the second ("Original author confirms...") was made. If that second comment was itself given a nodeID, it could be further annotated with that information if desired.

9. A variable with a timestamp, where the timestamp is additionally commented with the timestamper, and a textual comment

<variable cmeta:id="vi_variable" initial_value="0.025"  name="vi"
public_interface="out" units="flux">
<rdf:RDF>